Number of copies
|Use of an entire work
Use over consecutive semesters
- It is a legally obtained copy (preferably owned by or licensed to the Library or College); and
- The use is clearly for educational purposes; and
- The work is made available by an instructor to the enrolled students of a specific course through the Library Reserve Collection; or
- The work is made available in a face-to face presentation:
- by an instructor, student or guest lecturer
- to the enrolled students of a specific course
- in the classroom or other College space used for instruction.
Portions of textual works may be made available online via a system that limits access to the enrolled students of a specific course and prohibits copying or distribution for non-educational purposes.
When copying content from textual works, "less is best.” The greater the amount copied, the less likely that fair use exemptions will apply. “Best practices” allow for the follow portions:
- Data sets: Up to 10% or 2500 fields or cell entries.
- Poetry: A single poem of not more than 250 words or an excerpt of not more than 250 words
- Prose: Whichever of the following options represents the least amount of content:
- A single chapter.
- A single essay or story of no more than 2,500 words.
- An excerpt of no more than 2,500 words.
- 10% of a single work.
- A single article in a journal issue.
When the work being copied is owned or licensed for use by the College or Library, copying a greater amount may be allowed. The amount will be determined in consideration of the all four “fair use” factors, and how the copied material relates to a given educational goal.
The number of copies made for educational purposes should be limited to;
- A single copy for the instructor
- One copy for each student enrolled in the course.
Always include appropriate attribution and copyright notice when using any copyrighted work.
NOTE: Use of database content may be limited by the terms of licensing agreements as well as the fair use provisions of copyright law. If the terms of a license agreement differ from fair use provisions in the interpretation of copyright infringement, the former generally “trumps” the latter.
NOTE: Linking directly to database content is generally acceptable if access is restricted to the enrolled students of a specific course, copying or distribution for non-educational purposes is prohibited, and access to the content is not be retained without permission over consecutive semesters for the same course.
NOTE: Digital content include any electronic media created and communicated in digital code. The copyright protection given non-digital content also protects digital content. A book is a book whether in digital or print format; a letter is a letter whether fixed on paper or in an email. Technology makes it easier to infringe copyright but it does not justify infringement. Due consideration must be given to copyright restrictions when engaged in work that includes:
- Scanning or digitizing a printed work;
- Reformatting a digital work;
- File sharing;
- Downloading and using content from a web site;
- Linking to Internet content;
- Posting copyrighted content on a web site;
- Forwarding, posting or reproducing for distribution business e-mails and attachments;
- Forwarding, posting or reproducing for distribution content from electronic discussion lists, bulletin boards or newsgroups.
NOTE: If the quantity of content to be copied exceeds recommended amounts, or if use of content may otherwise be out of compliance with fair use exemptions, permission of the copyright holder is required and may incur a fee Copying without permission of the copyright holder is an infringement if the intent is:
- To create, replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations or collective works; or
Substitute for the purchase of works in original formats.
For information about what material is protected by copyright and "fair use" provisions of copyright law, please refer to the Selected Tools listing. For additional assistance, please contact Diane Norton.